What economic incentive is there to form decentralized organizations?

Adam Smith wrote a seminal book in 1776 called The Wealth of Nations. It is a classic, laying the foundations for most of today’s economic ideas. Smith’s ideas are deeply ingrained into western societies.

Division of labor is central to Smith’s thesis. Division of labor leads to high productivity. By focusing one’s efforts on a single task, one develops a talent for that task and become very productive. The greater the productivity, the greater one’s wealth.

Division of labor is consistent with one’s self-interest.

Conversely, when a person attempts to perform many tasks he masters none, is inefficient, has low productivity, and is unable to attain wealth. This is not consistent with one’s self-interest.

Division of labor results in a society that does lots of trading (if a person produces only one thing, he must trade for the other things he desires or needs). This creates a highly interconnected, interdependent society.

Today there is much excitement about decentralization. In a decentralized organization there is no one in charge, everyone is independent.

“Units of a decentralized organization are by definition completely autonomous … In decentralized organizations, anyone can do anything … Any and every activity is within anyone’s job description.” [1]

In a decentralized organization each person is not focused on a single task; rather, each person is a jack-of-all-trades. Smith would argue that this leads to low productivity, which leads to low wealth, which is not consistent with one’s self-interest.

So I wonder: what economic incentive is there to form decentralized organizations?

[1] The Starfish and the Spider by Ori Brafman and Rod A. Beckstrom

One Response to “What economic incentive is there to form decentralized organizations?”

  1. Justin Long Says:

    Decentralized organizations don’t require everyone to be a jack of all trades. In fact, most don’t work that way at all. Each individual specializes to a significant degree. Decentralization is more about leadership by team and consensus rather than by rank and hierarchy. Just because anyone *can* do anything (usually) in a decentralized org (swarm) doesn’t mean every single individual is expected to do everything or be a jack of all trades…

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