Archive for the ‘DNA’ Category

Evolution is not just for biology, it’s a way of creating novelty, knowledge, and growth

February 2, 2008

We are accustomed to thinking of evolution in a biological context, but modern evolutionary theory views evolution as something much more general.

Evolution is an algorithm; it is an all-purpose formula for innovation, a formula that, through its special brand of trial and error, creates new designs and solves difficult problems.

Evolution can perform its tricks not just in the “substrate” of DNA, but in any system that has the right information-processing and information-storage characteristics.

In short, evolution’s simple recipe of “differentiate, select, and amplify” is a type of computer program — a program for creating novelty, knowledge, and growth.  Because evolution is a form of information processing, it can do its order-creating work in realms ranging from computer software to the mind, to human culture, and to the economy.

The Origin of Wealth by Eric D. Beinhocker

Is there more information in a rock than in the human genetic DNA code?

August 18, 2007

How much information is in here:

  • It is a fine day.

Let’s measure the information by the number of characters. There are 17 characters, so the amount of information is 17.

How much information is in here:

  • It is a fine day. It is a fine day. It is a fine day. It is a fine day. It is a fine day.

The same sentence is repeated five times. Is the amount of information 17 x 5 = 85? Answer: No. The extra four sentences don’t say anything new. The information that is present is this:

  • Repeat 5 times: It is a fine day.

The number of characters in this is: 33

How much information is in here:

  • 3.1415 …

This is the value of pi. Suppose one million digits are displayed. None of the digits repeat, so you might be tempted to say that the amount of information is one million. Not so. The information can be represented succinctly as:

  • Pi to one million digits

Now the amount of information is just 24.

How much information is in here:

  • dkdl;eekrkpeosfdlzdmc;dsfkdopkfospkfs;dlkflas;krwe0q0–03ospaaj

This is just a random sequence of 63 characters. If any random characters will do, then the information can be represented simply as:

  • Random sequence of 63 characters

There are 33 characters.

Something is “information” if it is meaningful, non-random, and unpredictable [1].

How much information is in a rock? If we were to characterize all the properties (location, angular momentum, spin, velocity, and so on) of every atom in the rock, we would have a vast amount of information. A one-kilogram rock has 100000000000000000000000000000 (29 zeros) atoms. That’s one hundred million billion times more information than the genetic code of a human race. But for most common purposes, the bulk of this information is largely random and of little consequence. So we characterize the rock for most purposes with far less information just by specifying its shape, location, and the type of material of which it is made. Thus, it is reasonable to consider the information of an ordinary rock to be far less than that of a human even though the rock theoretically contains vast amounts of information.

[1] If you know what’s going to be said (i.e. it’s predictable) then it’s not information.

– – Extracted from The Singularity is Near by Ray Kurzweil