Categorical statements are statements that talk about whole categories of objects or people. Furniture, chairs, birds, trees, red things, and cities that begin with the letter T are all examples of categories.

There are two types of categorical statements:

**Universal statements**: These are statements that tell you something about an entire category. Here’s an example of a universal statement:*All dogs are loyal*This statement relates two categories and tells you that everything in the category of dogs is also in the category of loyal things. You can consider this a universal statement because it tells you that loyalty is a universal quality of dogs.

**Particular statements**: These are statements that tell you about the existence of at least one example within a category. Here’s an example of a particular statement:*Some bears are dangerous*This statement tells you that at least one item in the category of bears is also in the category of dangerous things. This statement is considered a particular statement because it tells you that at least one particular bear is dangerous.

— *Logic for Dummies* by Mark Zegarelli