Five steps to making discoveries and inventions:
- Define: define the problem you want to solve and define a goal that you want to attain that would solve the problem. At this point you know “what” you would like to see attained, but don’t know “how” to attain it.
- Abstract: The problem and goal that you identified will be expressed in terms specific to the area that you are working in. Your next step is to raise it up, abstract it, so that it is expressed in terms independent of your particular area of endeavor. Get the fundamental concepts identified.
- Already Discovered: This may be the most important step: assume that someone has already solved the problem (made the discovery) , although it may be in a different area of endeavor.
- Search: search the internet and read voraciously, looking for people working on analogous problems. You will likely need to abstract their work, and then compare their abstract problem statement with your abstract problem statement to determine if they are the same.
- Apply: once you’ve found someone who has already discovered what you want to do, apply their ideas and techniques to solving your problem
So, the problem of making a discovery comes down to these factors:
- How good are you at searching?
- How widely read are you? Do you have varied interests?
- How good are you at recognizing that your problem is (abstractly) the same as someone else’s problem?
With this approach you acknowledge that, with near certitude, someone else has already solved the problem (made the discovery). The only “discovery” you have to make is to find their discovery, recognize that it’s essentially the same thing that you’re working on, and then apply their ideas and techniques to your particular situation.
This is the “not discovered here” approach to discovery.
 “Most claims of originality are testimony to ignorance and most claims of magic are testimony to arrogance.” [James March, Stanford University]