Categorical statements are statements that talk about whole categories of objects or people. Furniture, chairs, birds, trees, red things, and cities that begin with the letter T are all examples of categories.
There are two types of categorical statements:
- Universal statements: These are statements that tell you something about an entire category. Here’s an example of a universal statement:
All dogs are loyal
This statement relates two categories and tells you that everything in the category of dogs is also in the category of loyal things. You can consider this a universal statement because it tells you that loyalty is a universal quality of dogs.
- Particular statements: These are statements that tell you about the existence of at least one example within a category. Here’s an example of a particular statement:
Some bears are dangerous
This statement tells you that at least one item in the category of bears is also in the category of dangerous things. This statement is considered a particular statement because it tells you that at least one particular bear is dangerous.
— Logic for Dummies by Mark Zegarelli